IETF July 2022 Monthly Report

In our IETF series, we have contributions from David Oliver of Guardian Project. David has attended several IETF meetings, learning about new protocols that can help advance Pluggable Transports work and benefit censorship circumvention developers.

July 2022 Report

By David Oliver of Guardian Project - [email protected]


The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has rapidly scaled up privacy-focused standards activity since mid-2019. The most important are: MASQUE, Messaging Layer Security, Privacy Pass, Oblivious HTTP Application Intermediation, Privacy Preserving Measurementand and TLS 1.3 with Encrypted Client Hello. The main privacy-focused advocacy groups within IETF are the Privacy Enhancements and Assessments Research Group and the Human Rights Protocol Considerations Research Group.

The effort undertaken here has developed key relationships within IETF as well as knowledge of its processes, brought knowledge of these activities into the Internet Freedom community, and engaged actively in the standards process with the definition and implementation of HTTP Transport Authentication which the HTTPbisWorking Group is now considering for adoption. More of these implementation efforts - cooperations among the Internet Freedom community, the open source community and the IETF - are recommended along with continued participation in its ongoing activities.


Let’s review why we thought this work might be important.

The majority of Internet Freedom funding is focused on solving immediate-term problems stemming from active surveillance, active suppression of Internet access (or access to specific content) and broad inequities in the availability of Internet access around the world. Solutions with short-term and measurable impact are sought. However, while this body of work has positively-impacted many lives, it’s safe to say that the hoped-for impacts have not been at Internet scale - euphemistically molehills, not mountains. Standards bodies, by contrast, operate at Internet scale and address problems in ways that can produce highly-generalized and durable solutions. However, because standards bodies are deliberative, results are not delivered in a timely fashion (or sometimes not at all). The question was asked: If a small amount of Internet Freedom funding was focused on steering Internet standards toward minimizing unwanted surveillance, improving privacy and enhancing access around the world could the gap be bridged between small-scale, short-term success and large-scale, long-term success?

The Internet’s two most important standards bodies are the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - the former with focus on the protocols that move content around the Internet, the latter with focus on the content itself. The IETF, therefore, is the body most likely to produce standards that impact our areas of interest. Fortunately, given the long-held spirit of cooperation among participants, the IETF has shown itself to be very effective at delivering standards that (a) are defined in a manner agreeable to the parties that must implement them and (b) have proven-interoperable implementations demonstrating success before the standard is agreed.

Although IETF’s interest in privacy didn’t start in July 2019 (with the plenary talk at the 105th meeting of the IETF by Columbia’s Steven Bellovin), IETF participants have been running their privacy efforts in high gear since that time. In addition to technical efforts such as Privacy Pass and Privacy Preserving Measurement, the Privacy Enhancements and Assessments Research Group and the Human Rights Protocol Considerations Research Group monitor, respectively, the most modern research in the implications of technology on privacy and the human implications of the protocols IETF designs. These close interactions among researchers, advocates and implementers have created a strong feedback loop that improves the chance of long term success in network protocol design. For example, [Transport Layer Security]( now secures over 99% of all Internet browsing traffic. The most recent version, TLS 1.3, with even better security and supporting the privacy-enhancing Encrypted Client Hello, already accounts for 60% of Internet traffic, mostly via the Chrome browser (the Internet’s most popular). Development of the initial version of TLS and the current version each took over four years to complete. Here’s an excellent article describing the process of bringing TLS 1.3 into broad adoption. An effort similar to TLS (called Messaging Layer Security, expected to reach standardization in 2023) is having a similar gestation period and could have TLS’s level of industry-wide impact on the privacy and security of messaging systems.

Within this context, we set out to discover if engaging with the IETF could both inform our work solving the most immediate privacy problems of the Internet and if our work could inform future IETF efforts to create durable and widespread standards-based solutions. From our original proposal, this initial foray was intended to:

Important developing standards

At any one time, the IETF is engaged in the development of hundreds of standards - from small corrections or additions to existing standards (for example, management of traffic congestion in TCP) to major protocol upgrades (for example, QUIC). While even seemingly minor protocol nuances can have huge future implications on privacy and Internet Freedom (for example, the QUIC Spin Bit), our efforts were focused on major privacy-first from-whole-cloth activities. Here’s a condensed description of these works and where they stand today.


Multiplexed Application Substrate over QUIC Encryption (MASQUE) began life with a small idea: provide a mechanism to co-locate networking applications - specifically VPNs - behind an HTTPS web server in a manner that makes those services indistinguishable from other HTTPS content and services to any unauthenticated observer. The MASQUE definition grew much larger, however, when it was realized that the definition of the QUIC and HTTP/3 protocols could be enhanced with all forms of proxy flow, not just one narrow definition. The original idea was hived off into a separate draft, to await later discussion (more on this later), a Working Group was formed and a suite of key standards was developed.

In April, the MASQUE Working Group reached consensus on both HTTP/3 Datagrams (datagrams for HTTP) and Connect-UDP (proxying datagrams over HTTP). In June, as expected, both drafts were submitted for publication as Proposed Standards. The Working Group has now commenced work on Connect-IP (proxying IP packets over HTTP) which defines the last of the required proxying scenarios agreed by this Working Group. Upon completion, all forms of Internet traffic - IP, UDP, TCP and QUIC - will have an HTTP proxying definition. At IETF114 in July, work began on interoperation testing for Connect-IP.

Messaging Layer Security (MLS)

Messaging Layer Security (MLS) is IETF’s attempt to specify a single, secure and private group messaging framework while allowing for multiple implementations can offer different application feature sets. The concept for and thinking around MLS is similar to that of TLS: it’s better (for users) to have a single cryptographically-correct, well-architected protocol for a capability when no one is seeking to compete in the same area. MLS is defined via an architecture and a protocol, with implementations of the latter left up to individual vendors.

After nearly 18 months of hiatus on protocol changes (while implementers worked to get their implementations to meet the then-current protocol drafts), draft #14 of the MLS protocol was submitted for final comment in May 3. Two Working Group interim meetings were held in June on the issues raised by draft #14. Drafts #15 and #16 were created and #16 was submitted for standards consideration. A new architecture draft (draft #8) was created in June to reflect the changes adopted in the protocol during the last quarter. It, too, was submitted in July for final review.

Last month we mentioned the MLS Extensions draft. By agreement of the Working Group over the last six months, this document moves a number of initially-imagined protocol “features” into hoped-for sanctioned extensions (in order to speed the adoption of the currently-defined protocol). In mid-June, this document was submitted officially to the Working Group for adoption (as a work item for the WG to officially act on) and the document was voted through at IETF114 in July.

Via these activities, and rapid progress on protocol implementations, it’s likely MLS will reach the status of Proposed Standard by mid-2023.

Privacy Pass

With the rise of automated-agent (so-called bots) traffic on the Internet (a large percentage of it malicious), the content delivery network providers have needed to find ways to assurance visitors are genuine. CAPTCHA, in its many forms, became popular with CDN operators despite being a “punish the good ones” strategy. CAPTCHA also foils legitimate users who prefer less popular browsers, those who use content filtering tools, those requiring access aids and people using browsers built around Tor. Privacy Pass can be seen as a genuinely user-friendly approach: once a real human has proved they’re a real human, Privacy Pass leverages that proof around more of the Internet for a longer duration of time. There are vestiges of OAuth/OAuth2 here - centralized authorities control the issuance and verification of tokens - but the protocol’s design prohibits the operators of Privacy Pass services from learning the underlying behavior of its users (request unlinkability is the preferred term).

Like MLS, Privacy Pass has both architecture and protocol specifications working their way toward standardization. Privacy Pass also specifies the scheme by which issued tokens are presented to participating services. Not standardized: the mechanism by which issuers of Privacy Pass tokens assure humans are humans.

In June, Apple announced Private Access Tokens - its branded version of Privacy Pass - in the iOS 16 and macOS Ventura beta releases. Apple says they are supporting Privacy Pass authentication (with type 2 - blind RSA - tokens) as defined in the protocol draft. The Apple scheme requires Apple hardware and leverages Apple’s unique relationship with its customers. Apple device owners with the newest operating system releases can experiment with Private Access Tokens today - CDN providers Cloudflare and Fastly have demonstration Privacy Pass token issuers to try. See here and (especially) here for a complete description. This is, of course, a major step forward for Privacy Pass. Will Google be forced for follow suit on behalf of Android device owners?

Oblivious HTTP (now Oblivious HTTP Application Intermediation, OHAI)

Oblivious- the watchword that seems to have infected all of IETF. Oblivious is code for blinding a service provider’s view of the client’s IP address behind a pair of trusted intermediary servers. The key predecessor ideas underlying OHAI were published in June as RFC9230 - Oblivious DNS over HTTP, an independent submission (by Apple and others), brought forward as experimental, specifically for service requests to the Domain Name Service. Well in advance of reaching publication status, Oblivious DNS over HTTP raised a possibility: could all transactional uses of HTTP (Online Certificate Status Protocol among them, perhaps browser telemetry) be protected in this way? New work - Oblivious HTTP Application Intermediation, OHAI - was chartered to bring concept of obliviousness to this broader arena. The tortured name, by the way, is meant to reflect that web browsing - whose usage pattern is more interactive than transaction - is specifically not to be covered by this protocol definition.

The Working Group’s primary specification was given a much-needed refresh in July, updating terminology and clarifying the scope and use cases for OHAI as being transactional. It is believed by the Working Group - and, it seems, by the broader IETF community, that privacy (and more specifically blinding of the client’s IP address) is being handled by the MASQUE efforts (since proxies are required to implement obliviousness, and MASQUE is all about proxies).

The major service providers have begun to field implementations for interoperability testing.

Privacy Preserving Measurement (PPM)

Measurement seems a benign word - hard to imagine anyone getting worked up over it. It’s possible to characterize almost all measurements taken on Internet traffic as being good. But, too often, the stated requirements for measurement hide the real and intended uses. Many people characterize the Internet of today as a surveillance economy. Consumers have tried to fight back - with particular support in the European Union - but with modest success. More recently, however, state actors have begun using the surveillance economy as a way to justify suppression of certain Internet services, particularly the most popular media and social media outlets who are also the biggest contributors to the mining and correlation of personal data for commercial use. With livelihoods threatened, newer approaches to measure without surveilling were needed. Enter privacy-preserving measurement.

Differential Privacy is the approach being taken by IETF to address intrusive measurement. Differential Privacy is a way to describe patterns within a dataset (say, access to a website) without disclosing individual actors in the dataset. However, the current state of play among the top data-harvesting firms is such that individuals can be targeted even in the presence of early versions of this technique. To solve these problems, distributed aggregation is being tried, leveraging new mathematical techniques as well as some of the work mentioned above (OHAI in particular). Two approaches - Prio and STAR - are now being considered. Based on Prio, the Distributed Aggregation Protocol for Privacy Preserving Measurement was made an official working group document in May 2022. Mailing list discussion now centers on initial interoperability testing - a step forward, indicating more interested parties are willing to invest in implementations, at least for study/research. This is especially pertinent because there are still open theoretical questions about the actual privacy this solution can offer.

Smaller standards activities

Encrypted Client Hello (ECH) (formerly, Encrypted Server Name Identifier, ESNI)

The need for encryption of the TLS protocol handshake is described in this excellent article on the Cloudflare blog:

The most widely used cryptographic protocol for [exchanging encryption keys] is the Transport Layer Security (TLS) handshake. Today, a number of privacy-sensitive parameters of the TLS connection are negotiated in the clear. This leaves a trove of metadata available to network observers, including the endpoints’ identities, how they use the connection, and so on.

ECH encrypts the full handshake so that this metadata is kept secret. Crucially, this closes a long-standing privacy leak by protecting the Server Name Indication (SNI) from eavesdroppers on the network. Encrypting the SNI is important because it is the clearest signal of which server a given client is communicating with. However, and perhaps more significantly, ECH also lays the groundwork for adding future security features and performance enhancements to TLS while minimizing their impact on the privacy of end users.

Draft 14 of the Encrypted Client Hello specification was released in February. Though not all specification features are closed, implementation work is underway. Perhaps the most interesting effort is Developing ECH for OpenSSL (DEfO). Guardian Project team members are involved in the implementation and interoperability testing work done by this project. In addition to making the changes in OpenSSL itself (a widely-used open source software library implementing the TLS specification), key open source software platforms that integrate OpenSSL - nginx, apache2, and haproxy among them - are also being modified. This is an excellent example of the Internet Freedom community bringing some of its core expertise (implementation of, and experience with, encryption) to the broader open source software community (which, in many cases, is providing dominant software that underlies most Internet applications).


Since late 2018, the IETF and its companion research organizations have been working very hard on updating the Internet’s pre-existing uses of cryptography and applying new advances to modern protocol proposals and applications. Among the major advances, the IETF’s Hybrid Public Key Encryption (HPKE) was crowned a standard - RFC9180 - in February. Cloudflare has an excellent summary with references. Many of the Internet Drafts I’ve cited in here depend on HPKE, including Oblivious HTTP Application Intermediation and Messaging Layer Security. TLS Encrypted Client Hello (ECH), above, is also dependent on HPKE.

HTTP Transport Authentication

We mentioned that HTTP Transport Authentication was, originally (February 2019), called MASQUE. The specification is designed to authenticate protocol flows in a manner that does not reveal any information to an attacker. Therefore, applications using HTTP Transport Authentication are resistant to active probing by network adversaries. However, the ideas originally expressed got IETF’s creative juices flowing and, as above, a Working Group was formed to define the standards around carrying all types of traffic (IP, UDP, and TCP) over HTTP/3 and QUIC (and therefore leveraging QUIC’s many perceived benefits: performance, congestion control and enhanced encryption). The HTTP Transport Authentication draft languished while this effort was in high gear. With HTTP/3 Datagrams and CONNECT-UDP now standardized and CONNECT-IP ready for interoperability testing, it was time to dust off this draft and build an actual implementation.

At IETF113 in March, we picked up work originally done by one of our teammates implementing draft #5 of HTTP Transport Authentication and joined the Hackathon with a project to get that code working on an updated environment and in a testable way. We got the original code running in Google Conscrypt (TLS for Java/Android), verified its function (as defined in the Internet Draft) and created a public open source repository with a demonstration capability. We presented the work to Hackathon attendees (~50 people) and discussed the work with the specification’s author. Here’s our implementation repository.

Subsequently, Guardian Project became a co-author of an updated draft #7 of HTTP Transport Authentication which was presented at IETF114 in July to the HTTPbis Working Group, responsible for maintenance of and extensions to the HTTP protocol. The Working Group requested minor modifications to the draft which will subsequently be submitted for possible adoption as a work item. The existence of an open source implementation along with interest from the Internet Freedom community (in the form of participation by the Guardian Project) could be important factors in the decision to proceed with this work.

Opportunities ahead

The IETF is fortunate to have gifted individuals from the Internet Freedom community deeply involved, advocating for human rights in the design of the Internet and assuring that specifications produced adhere to high standards of security and privacy while becoming more accessible by people in challenging economic and cultural situations. The effort undertaken here sought to create a two-way street between the knowledge and expertise of the Internet Freedom community and the IETF standards community for the benefit of both. The effort indicates that there remains ample opportunity for the technical members of the Internet Freedom community to extend their expertise into what has become an increasingly-important niche within IETF: real-world experience with implementing privacy and Internet Freedom technologies in the face of entrenched adversaries, dominant service providers and recalcitrant governments. Efforts like Encrypted Client Hello and HTTP Transport authentication indicate that, based on the strong relationships already developed (and partly due to the present project), technical activities by members of the Internet Freedom community, within the IETF framework, can more rapidly enhance the long-term benefits of IETF’s efforts for the citizens of the Internet. Mountains from molehills, perhaps.